Goreme Open Air museum is part of a unique landscape that consists of mountain ridges, valleys and fairy chimneys. The topography is made up of a kind of soft rock called ‘tufa’, which can be easily broken through and carved out to make dwellings. Goreme Air Museum itself is a huge complex of rock-cut monasteries that were operative between the 9th and 12th centuries. The churches and monasteries are decorated with frescoes that represent rare Byzantine art of the post-iconoclastic period. Despite having been created more than a thousand years ago, the colors of the frescoes have retained their original freshness. The density of the rock-cut cells and the extent and sophistication of the underground complexes make it the world’s largest and most striking example of organized cave habitation.