n Cappadocia, Turkey, there are around 35 underground cities. The deep valleys, the splendid rock formations, and the ancient subterranean hideouts were carved by volcanic ash rock millions of years ago.
The volcanic rock proved to be ideal building material for the underground cities in this area which are the main attraction of Central Anatolia. The deepest underground city is Derinkuyu, while the widest one is the underground city of Kaymakli.
Kaymakli is one of the most visited underground cities in Cappadocia. It is located right beneath the Kaymakli Castle. The ancient name of the city was Enegup. This underground city had eight floors, but only four of them are open for visitors. Kaymakli was once home to more than 3,000 people.
People built their homes around the tunnels of the city in order to protect themselves from invading Arabs and Roman soldiers. The tunnels go as deep as 40 meters. The tunnel network is designed as a puzzle. The tunnels are steeply inclined, narrow, and low. The city was connected with Derinkuyu underground city through a nine-kilometer tunnel and served as a good hiding place.